Ce rapport intitulé "THE STATUS OF THE ARAB LEAGUE BOYCOTT ON ISRAEL" a été pulbié le 20/06/2012 par la Fédération des armateurs norvégiens. Il est extrêmement intéressant, car c'est un sujet qu'on évite pudiquement d'aborder en Europe. Il convient de lire tout particulièrement la section concernant les mesures prises par les États-Unis contre le boycott - ça fait réfléchir beaucoup de monde en Europe: Re potential US based sister/daughter companies. (Via Norway, Israel and the Jews)
The Arab League still has a boycott in place against Israel, ultimately maintaining sanctions that can also affect Norwegian and other shipping companies. However, adhering to the boycott is an individual matter for the League’s member states. Each AL country’s implementation of the AL boycott scheme will vary over time, in line with overall political tension in the region. The US has imposed laws to prohibit US companies from adhering to the League’s boycott. This, and WTO regulations that are in effect for some AL member states, has caused Arab support of the Arab League boycott to diminish. Syria and Lebanon have traditionally been the staunchest supporters of the AL boycott, while Egypt is among states that does not effectively support the boycott.
- The primary boycott prohibits citizens of an Arab League member from buying from, selling to, or entering into a business contract with either the Israeli government or an Israeli citizen.
- The secondary boycott extends the primary boycott to any entity world-wide that does business in Israel. A blacklist of global firms that engage in business with Israel is maintained by the Arab League Central Boycott Office, and disseminated to Arab League members.
- The tertiary boycott prohibits an Arab League member and its nationals from doing business with a company that deals with companies that have been blacklisted by the Arab League [i].
- The Arab League is an umbrella organization comprising 22 Middle Eastern and African countries and entities. Arab League members are Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, the Palestinian Authority, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
- In November 2011, Arab League members suspended Syria from participating in Arab League meetings due to the Syrian government’s violent crackdown on political demonstrations.
- The Arab League does not enforce the boycott and boycott regulations are not binding on member states. However, the regulations have been the model for various laws implemented by member countries. The League recommends that member countries demand certificates of origin on all goods acquired from suppliers to ensure that such goods meet all aspects of the boycott [ii].
- Today, Israel has diplomatic relations with 163 states. Following the signing of the Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on September 13, 1993, Israel established or renewed diplomatic relations with 36 countries.
- Israel has full diplomatic relations with Egypt and Jordan.
- On October 1, 1994, the Gulf States publicly announced their support for a review of the Arab boycott, in effect abolishing the secondary and tertiary boycotts against Israel [iii].
- In 1977, the US Congress passed laws making it illegal for U.S. companies to cooperate with the boycott and authorizing the imposition of civil and criminal penalties against U.S. violators. U.S. companies are required to report to the Department of Commerce any requests to comply with the Arab League Boycott.
- There are indications that some Arab League countries publicly support the boycott while continuing to quietly trade with Israel. Others assert that enforcement of the boycott waxes and wanes with the level of intensity of the Israeli-Palestinian issue [iv].
- Agreements to refuse or actual refusal to do business with or in Israel or with blacklisted companies
- Agreements to discriminate or actual discrimination against other persons based on race, religion, sex, national origin or nationality
- Agreements to furnish or actual furnishing of information about business relationships with or in Israel or with blacklisted companies; and/or
- Agreements to furnish or actual furnishing of information about the race, religion, sex, or national origin of another person.
- Lastly, U.S. taxpayers who cooperate with the boycott are subject to the loss of tax benefits that the U.S. government provides to exporters. These benefits include, among others, the foreign tax credit, the benefits for foreign sales corporation (FSC) since repealed, and the tax deferral available to U.S. shareholders of a controlled foreign corporation (CFC).